Are You Biblically / Theologically Literate?

We concluded a study on Basic Christian Doctrine on Thursday nights this week (2/25).  I handed out a test for everyone to take.  You can obtain a pdf copy here and the answers here.  I’ve included the questions on the quiz below.  Are you biblically/theologically literate? 

The Bible

  • Inerrancy means that the Bible tells the _______________.
  • List two references that teach the Bible is inspired:

The Trinity

  • Provide one verse that teaches “oneness-in-threeness.”

The Person of Christ

  • How many natures did Christ have?
  • How much of each did He have? 
  • Provide at least one text on the deity of Christ.
  • Provide at least one text on the humanity of Christ.
  • Give me a verse that summarizes both.

The Work of Christ

  • What work did Christ perform in the past?
  • What work does Christ perform in the present?
  • What work will Christ perform in the future?


  • How many angels are there?
  • T or F: The Devil is God’s evil peer


  • What does very person have that distinguishes man from animals (see Genesis 1:26-27). 
  • How many parts comprise man?  Support with a passage or two.
  • What is man’s purpose?  Support with a Bible passage.


  • Define sin.
  • What does Psalm 51:5 teach us about original sin?
  • How has sin affected every person? 


  • Define the gospel and list at least one passage that supports your definition.
  • Can a true believer fully or finally fall away?  Provide Scripture.
  • What is a synonym for faith?

The Church

  • What is the mission of the church to the lost?  What is the mission of the church to the saved?

Future Events

  • What are the two final destinies?
  • What is the duration of each destiny?  Provide Scripture.

The Internet and Not So Anonymous Anonimity

The eyes of the Lord are in every place, keeping watch on the evil and the good (Proverbs 15:3, ESV)

A very thought-provoking blog post, “God Watches You Google.”  This is an excellent reminder about the connection between our character and Google.

The Depth of Total Depravity and the Height of Gospel Liberation

And you were dead in the trespasses and sins [2] in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience— [3] among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind (Ephesians 2:1-3, ESV)

The statement that we are spiritually dead is known as “total depravity.”  Total depravity does not mean that man is as bad as he can possibly be.  It does mean that every part of our being is tainted by sin (Stott, Ephesians, 79).  There is another dog in this fight.  Some would argue that we are not dead but in a coma; we are not totally depraved but partially depraved.  Some teach that man is born morally neutral and becomes sinful by imitation (Pelagianism).  However, Psalm 51:5 says, “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.”  Others teach that our mind and body are affected by Adam’s sin but not our will.  Consequently, with the aid of God’s common grace, we can choose to be saved (Arminianism).  This was embraced by John Wesley.  Accordingly, it is the official position of the Methodist church.  However, we only need to look at Ephesians 2:3, “carrying out the desires of the body” to discover that our will is tainted by sin and in need of God’s special saving grace to choose Him.  In case that was not compelling enough evidence, Jesus said in John 15:16, “you did not choose me, but I chose you.”  We did not cooperate with God in salvation, we simply responded to the gracious call of God like Lazarus, who was physically dead, responded to the life-giving words of Jesus, “Lazarus, come out” (John 11:43)!  So the notion of partial depravity falls short of expressing the extent of depravity in Ephesians 2:1-3. 

Total depravity teaches us that we are active participants in sin, not a passive accomplice.  A statement like, “the devil made me do it” expresses a passive accomplice mentality. 

Let them not then say that he who does wrong and sins, transgresses because of demons.  For then he would be guiltless.  Instead, a person becomes a demoniac man by choosing the same things as do the demons: by sinning and being unstable, frivolous, and fickle in his desires—just like a demon.  Now he who is bad (having become sinful by nature, because of evil) becomes depraved.  He has what he has chosen.  And, being sinful, he sins also in his actions.  Likewise, the good man does right (Clement of Alexandria [c. 195, E], 2.502 in A Doctrine of Early Christian Beliefs, 414). 

We live in a world where the reasons to not own up for our sin are legion.  We have this condition, we have this chemical imbalance.  I will not deny that such conditions exist but I will not concede that such circumstances remove our culpability.  We cannot continue to walk lockstep with the world and give in to the notion that sin is treated with a pill rather than the gospel.  It’s like throwing air freshener into a septic tank in the hopes that it will take away the stench.  We need to come to terms with the depravity that resides within us.  Otherwise we cannot experience the liberating power of the gospel.  We will live our lives as victims rather than victors in Christ.

In Ephesians 2:1-10 Paul first plums the depths of pessimism about man, and then rises to the heights of optimism about God.  It is this combination of pessimism and optimism, of despair and faith, which constitutes the refreshing realism of the Bible.  For what Paul does in this passage is to paint a vivid contrast between what man is by nature and what he can become by grace (Stott, Ephesians, 69). 

You Might Be a Baptist If . . .

You might be a Baptist if . . .

  • You believe you are supposed to take a covered dish to heaven.
  • You have never sung the third verse of any hymn.
  • You clapped your hands in church last Sunday and felt guilty all week long.
  • You woke up craving fried chicken and thought you were called to preach.
  • You think that God’s presence is strongest on the back three pews.
  • Your definition of fellowship has something to do with food.
  • You honestly believe that the Apostle Paul spoke the King James Version.
  • You think Welch’s grape juice and crackers were served at the last supper.
  • You think “Victory in Jesus” is the national anthem.


A Power that Builds Up

Natural disasters display some serious power.  They remind us how fragile and weak we truly are.  We’ve seen images of the unimaginable devastation with the recent Haiti earthquake.  Louis St. Germain, a pastor who runs an orphanage in Haiti, said in an interview with ABC news that within fifteen minutes of the quake, “the city of Les Cayes, Haiti was in the street.”  The January 12, 2010 Haitian earthquake was nothing less than a display of raw, natural power.  In Ephesians 1:19 we find a power that exceeds that of a mighty earthquake and builds us up rather than tears us down. 

Ephesians 1:19, “and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to the working of his great might”*

There are actually four words for “power” in v. 19: “power” (dunameōs), “working” (energeian), “great” (ischus), and “might” (kratos).  The idea of power is emphasized to “enforce the idea of God’s abundant power available to all believers” (Harold Hoehner, Ephesians, 271).  In other words, this is some extraordinary power that’s at work within us! 

God’s power is not a luxury but a necessity for the believer.  When it comes to living the Christian life, we are like a battery without a charge apart from the power of God.  We cannot live the Christian life in the flesh.  Matthew 26:41, “Watch and pray that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”  2 Corinthians 12:9, “But he said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.’ Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me.”  We need God’s power.  God’s power is indispensible to live the Christian life because living the Christian life means exerting great energy, as the images of the Christian and the Christian life indicate.  Here are some examples:

Images of the Christian

  • A soldier (2 Timothy 2:3)
  • An athlete (2 Timothy 2:5; cf. 1 Corinthians 9:25)
  • A farmer (2 Timothy 2:6)
  • A worker (2 Timothy 2:15)

Images of the Christian Life

  • A wrestling match (Ephesians 6:12)
  • A race (1 Corinthians 9:24, 26; Hebrews 12:1)
  • A boxing match (1 Corinthians 9:26)

Interesting.  No Christian couch-potato metaphors.  As you see, these images are not for the kinetically-challenged soul.  We are always dependent on God’s power.  “For this I toil, struggling with all his energy that he powerfully works within me” (Colossians 1:29).  D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, pastor of the Westminster Chapel in London for almost 30 years, was right to say that “were it not for the power of God, we would never accomplish anything, we would not stand for a moment, we would be undone” (D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 418). 

We should make one more important observation concerning God’s power.  God does not work for the naked display of power but for His glory! 

  • Isaiah 40:25-26, “To whom then will you compare me, that I should be like him? says the Holy One. [26] Lift up your eyes on high and see: who created these?  He who brings out their host by number, calling them all by name, by the greatness of his might, and because he is strong in power not one is missing.”
  • Psalm 106:7-8, “Our fathers, when they were in Egypt, did not consider your wondrous works;
    they did not remember the abundance of your steadfast love, but rebelled by the sea, at the Red Sea. [8] Yet he saved them for his name’s sake, that he might make known his mighty power.”
  • Romans 9:17, “For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, ‘For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth’.”

It is good for us to glorify God with our lips by offering words and songs of praise but it is even better when we glorify God with our entire being.  In this way we reflect God’s glory to those around us.  His power is at work in us as we grow in holiness and in our love for Him. 

I sing the mighty pow’r of God, that made the mountains rise,
That spread the flowing seas abroad, and built the lofty skies.
I sing the wisdom that ordained the sun to rule the day;
The moon shines full at God’s command, and all the stars obey.
(Isaac Watts, “I Sing the Mighty Power of God,” 1715)

*Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version (ESV), copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.  Used by permissions.  All rights reserved.

How Do We Pray Without Ceasing?

1 Thessalonians 5:17 “Pray without ceasing.”

The text is short in our English text, three words, and even shorter in the original, two words.  The word “pray” is an imperative and in the plural. The imperative means it’s a command, and the plural identifies who is being commanded, namely the church at Thessalonica and by extension all believers.

Paul reminds believers regularly about the centrality of prayer.

Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer (Romans 12:12)

I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in your prayers to God on my behalf (Romans 15:30)

You also must help us by prayer, so that many will give thanks on our behalf for the blessing granted us through the prayers of many (2 Corinthians 1:11)

Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God (Philippians 4:6)

Continue steadfastly in prayer, being watchful in it with thanksgiving (Colossians 4:2)

Of course, our Lord both instructed His disciples how to pray (Matthew 6:5-15) and commanded them to pray (Matthew 26:41; Luke 18:1). He also practiced extensive and intense prayer Himself (Luke 6:12; 22:44).

Prayer is labor, nothing less than expending mental, physical, and spiritual energy.

Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ Jesus, greets you, always struggling on your behalf in his prayers, that you may stand mature and fully assured in all the will of God (Colossians 4:12)

The anecdotes provided below encourage us to and remind us that we need to persevere and discipline ourselves in prayer.

Perseverance in Prayer: George Müller

While I was staying at Nailsworth, it pleased the Lord to teach me a truth, irrespective of human instrumentality, as far as I know, the benefit of which I have not lost, though now…more than forty years have since passed away.

The point is this: I saw more clearly than ever, that the first great and primary business to which I ought to attend every day was, to have my soul happy in the Lord. The first thing to be concerned about was not, how much I might serve the Lord, how I might glorify the Lord; but how I might get my soul into a happy state, and how my inner man might be nourished. For I might seek to set the truth before the unconverted, I might seek to benefit believers, I might seek to relieve the distressed, I might in other ways seek to behave myself as it becomes a child of God in this world; and yet, not being happy in the Lord, and not being nourished and strengthened in my inner man day by day, all this might not be attended to in a right spirit.

Before this time my practice had been, at least for ten years previously, as an habitual thing, to give myself to prayer, after having dressed in the morning. Now I saw, that the most important thing I had to do was to give myself to the reading of the Word of God and to meditation on it, that thus my heart might be comforted, encouraged, warned, reproved, instructed; and that thus, whilst meditating, my heart might be brought into experimental, communion with the Lord. I began therefore, to meditate on the New Testament, from the beginning, early in the morning.

The first thing I did, after having asked in a few words the Lord’s blessing upon His precious Word, was to begin to meditate on the Word of God; searching, as it were, into every verse, to get blessing out of it; not for the sake of the public ministry of the Word; not for the sake or preaching on what I had meditated upon; but for the sake of obtaining food for my own soul. The result I have found to be almost invariably this, that after a very few minutes my soul has been led to confession, or to thanksgiving, or to intercession, or to supplication; so that though I did not, as it were, give myself to prayer, but to meditation, yet it turned almost immediately more or less into prayer.

When thus I have been for awhile making confession, or intercession, or supplication, or have given thanks, I go on to the next words or verse, turning all, as I go on, into prayer for myself or others, as the Word may lead to it; but still continually keeping before me, that food for my own soul is the object of my meditation. The result of this is, that there is always a good deal of confession, thanksgiving, supplication, or intercession mingled with my meditation, and that my inner man almost invariably is even sensibly nourished and strengthened and that by breakfast time, with rare exceptions, I am in a peaceful if not happy state of heart. Thus also the Lord is pleased to communicate unto me that which, very soon after, I have found to become food for other believers, though it was not for the sake of the public ministry of the Word that I gave myself to meditation, but for the profit of my own inner man.

The difference between my former practice and my present one is this. Formerly, when I rose, I began to pray as soon as possible, and generally spent all my time till breakfast in prayer, or almost all the time. At all events I almost invariably began with prayer.… But what was the result? I often spent a quarter of an hour, or half an hour, or even an hour on my knees, before being conscious to myself of having derived comfort, encouragement, humbling of soul, etc.; and often after having suffered much from wandering of mind for the first ten minutes, or a quarter of an hour, or even half an hour, I only then began really to pray.

I scarcely ever suffer now in this way. For my heart being nourished by the truth, being brought into experimental fellowship with God, I speak to my Father, and to my Friend (vile though I am, and unworthy of it!) about the things that He has brought before me in His precious Word.

It often now astonished me that I did not sooner see this. In no book did I ever read about it. No public ministry ever brought the matter before me. No private intercourse with a brother stirred me up to this matter. And yet now, since God has taught me this point, it is as plain to me as anything, that the first thing the child of God has to do morning by morning is to obtain food for his inner man.

As the outward man is not fit for work for any length of time, except we take food, and as this is one of the first things we do in the morning, so it should be with the inner man. We should take food for that, as every one must allow. Now what is the food for the inner man: not prayer, but the Word of God: and here again not the simple reading of the Word of God, so that it only passes through our minds, just as water runs through a pipe, but considering what we read, pondering over it, and applying it to our hearts.…

I dwell so particularly on this point because of the immense spiritual profit and refreshment I am conscious of having derived from it myself, and I affectionately and solemnly beseech all my fellow-believers to ponder this matter. By the blessing of God I ascribe to this mode the help and strength which I have had from God to pass in peace through deeper trials in various ways than I had ever had before; and after having now above forty years tried this way, I can most fully, in the fear of God, commend it. How different when the soul is refreshed and made happy early in the morning, from what is when, without spiritual preparation, the service, the trials and the temptations of the day come upon one!
(Autobiography of George Müller, comp. Fred Bergen [London: J. Nisbet, 1906], 152–4 in John Piper, Desiring God, 155-7)

Discipline in Prayer: J. Sidlow Baxter

Better to commit yourself to a total of fifteen minutes and maintain it—with perhaps five minutes of Bible reading, five minutes of meditation, and five minutes of disciplined prayer. A regular time of devotion and prayer will become a habit, and the habit of prayer will give wings to your spiritual life.

In this respect, Dr. J. Sidlow Baxter once shared a page from his own pastoral diary with a group of pastors who had inquired about the discipline of prayer. He began telling how in 1928 he entered the ministry determined he would be the “most Methodist-Baptist” of pastors, a real man of prayer. However, it was not long before his increasing pastoral responsibilities and administrative duties and the subtle subterfuges of pastoral life began to crowd prayer out. Moreover, he began to get used to it, making excuses for himself.

Then one morning it all came to a head as he stood over his work-strewn desk and looked at his watch. The voice of the Spirit was calling him to pray. At the same time another velvety little voice was telling him to be practical and get his letters answered, and that he ought to face up to the fact that he was not one of the “spiritual sort”—only a few people could be like that. “That last remark,” says Baxter,” hurt like a dagger blade. I could not bear to think it was true.” He was horrified by his ability to rationalize away the very ground of his ministerial vitality and power.

That morning Sidlow Baxter took a good look into his heart, and found there was a part of him which did not want to pray and a part which did. The part which did not was his emotions; the part which did was his intellect and will. This analysis paved the way to victory. In Dr. Baxter’s own inimitable words:

As never before, my will and I stood face to face. I asked my will the straight question, Will, are you ready for an hour of prayer?” Will answered, “Here I am, and I’m quite ready, if you are.” So Will and I linked arms and turned to go for our time of prayer. At once all the emotions began pulling the other way and protesting, “We are not coming.” I saw Will stagger just a bit, so I asked, “Can you stick it out, Will?” and Will replied, “Yes, if you can.“ So Will went, and we got down to prayer, dragging those wriggling, obstreperous emotions with us. It was a struggle all the way through. At one point, when Will and I were in the middle of an earnest intercession, I suddenly found one of those traitorous emotions had snared my imagination and had run off to the golf course; and it was all I could do to drag the wicked rascal back. A bit later I found another of the emotions had sneaked away with some off-guard thoughts and was in the pulpit, two days ahead of schedule, preaching a sermon that I had not yet finished preparing!

At the end of that hour, if you had asked me, “Have you had a ‘good time’?” I would have had to reply, “No, it has been a wearying wrestle with contrary emotions and a truant imagination from beginning to end.” What is more, that battle with the emotions continued for between two and three weeks, and if you asked me at the end of that period, “Have you had a ‘good time’ in your daily praying?” I would have had to confess, “No, at times it has seemed as though the heavens were brass, God too distant to hear, the Lord Jesus strangely aloof and prayer accomplished nothing.”

Yet something was happening. For one thing, Will and I really taught the emotions that we were completely independent of them. Also, one morning, about two weeks after the contest began, just when Will and I were going for another time of prayer, I overheard one of the emotions whisper to the other, “Come on, you guys, it is no use wasting any more time resisting: they’ll go just the same.” That morning, for the first time, even though the emotions were still suddenly uncooperative, they were at least quiescent, which allowed Will and me to get on with prayer undistractedly.

Then, another couple of weeks later, what do you think happened? During one of our prayer times, when Will and I were no more thinking of the emotions than of the man-in-the-moon, one of the most vigorous of the emotions unexpectedly sprang up and shouted, “Hallelujah!” at which all the other emotions exclaimed, “Amen!”And for the first time the whole of my being—intellect, will, and emotions—was united in one coordinated prayer-operation.
(R. Kent Hughes, Disciplines of a Godly Man, 103-4)

The Puritan Thomas Brooks said,

Our Saviour in the text takes it for granted that every child of God will be frequent in praying to his heavenly Father; and therefore he encourages them so much the more in the work of secret prayer. ‘When you pray’; as if he said, I know you can as well hear without ears, and live without food, and fight without hands, and walk without feet, as you are able to live without prayer (Thomas Brooks, The Secret Key to Heaven, 5).

May these anecdotes exhort us as we strive for relentless communion with God.

John Stott on the Swoon Theory

The swoon theory was advanced by the German theologian and Biblical critic Heinrich Paulus (Miller, Jesus Christ is Alive, 38). This idea asserts that Christ suffered terribly on the cross, He suffered from shock, and swooned but did not die. The disciples thought he was dead (and apparently so did the Roman guards and Dr. Luke) so Jesus was buried in haste due to the approaching Sabbath. While in the cool air of the tomb, Jesus awakened. John Stott responds,

[Can we really believe] that after the rigours and pains of trial, mockery, flogging and crucifixion he could survive…in a stone sepulcher with neither warmth nor food nor medical care? That he could then rally sufficiently to perform the superhuman feat of shifting the boulder which secured the mouth of the tomb…without disturbing the Roman guard? That he could appear to the disciples in such a way as to give them the impression that he had vanquished death? … Such credulity is more incredible than Thomas’ unbelief (Stott, Basic Christianity, 49).